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鸿星尔克、白象、蜂花,为什么会让你野性消费?
2022-03-23 11:36:27

鸿星尔克、白象、蜂花,为什么会让你野性消费?","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"qnZv-1647829846096","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"mc0l-1647829846082","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"3oLG-1647835633265","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"TNhk-1647835633262","leaves":[{"text":"又一个品牌因为野性消费被推上热搜。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"DvvN-1647838114415","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"Pmye-1647838114413","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"ILPP-1647838114607","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"Kj2w-1647838114605","leaves":[{"text":"北京冬残奥会期间,白象","marks":[{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]},{"text":"因为员工有三分之一是残障人士,被网友送上了热搜。","marks":[{"type":"color","value":"#191919"},{"type":"backgroundColor","value":"rgb(255, 255, 255)"},{"type":"fontFamily","value":"Arial"},{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]},{"text":"315土坑酸菜问题曝光后,白象霸气回应","marks":[]},{"text":"“没合作,放心吃,身正不怕影子斜。”再次赢得大批网友点赞,有网友哭谏白象去买个热榜,结果是白象没有花钱,但热榜有了。","marks":[{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"EAsM-1647838681258","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"4pWN-1647838681254","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"Zrdb-1647838682749","name":"image","data":{"version":1,"url":"https://note.youdao.com/yws/public/resource/aa75c43f573ece7e61d3d3b4631f8d2b/xmlnote/WEBRESOURCEc55c0774465bd5275f3e27433ac945cc/113109","width":761,"height":572},"nodes":[],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"hBFq-1647837723749","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"fQ8G-1647837723747","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"ilkF-1647837987126","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"pm1A-1647837987124","leaves":[{"text":"跟随热搜而来的是“野性消费”,白象在315回应之后,其相比其他品牌纯正国货的身份,以及企业大量雇佣残疾人的行为被大量讨论,大批网友涌入官方直播间,带来“7天销售额破千万”的成绩,官方不得不呼吁消费者理性消费。","marks":[{"type":"color","value":"#191919"},{"type":"backgroundColor","value":"rgb(255, 255, 255)"},{"type":"fontFamily","value":"Arial"},{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"cxsW-1647838356049","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"vfxu-1647838356035","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"mwg1-1647838356184","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"mHfx-1647838356182","leaves":[{"text":"这一幕似曾相识,去年鸿星尔克因为在河南洪涝灾害后低调捐款5000万,而被消费者送上热搜,并引发大批消费者到直播间消费。同样是国货品牌的蜂花,因为“","marks":[{"type":"color","value":"#191919"},{"type":"backgroundColor","value":"rgb(255, 255, 255)"},{"type":"fontFamily","value":"Arial"},{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]},{"text":"不打广告,物美价廉,却快要倒闭了”而被网友们推上热搜,短时间内直播间被买爆。","marks":[{"type":"color","value":"#262626"},{"type":"backgroundColor","value":"rgb(255, 255, 255)"},{"type":"fontFamily","value":"Arial"},{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"Lnvg-1647839006785","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"aAUm-1647839006770","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"wyuH-1647839142847","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"2eLr-1647839142844","leaves":[{"text":"鸿星尔克、白象们的“野性消费”现象并不罕见,事实上,早在论坛时代王老吉就有过类似的案例,只不过那个案例是王老吉策划的。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"jaO7-1647839421100","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"hxmZ-1647839421098","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"5RfF-1647837960937","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"6jaJ-1647837960935","leaves":[{"text":"2008年5月19日——王老吉(就是现在的加多宝)宣布为汶川地震捐助1亿元的第二天,天涯论坛上出现了一个标题为《让王老吉从中国的货架上消失!封杀它!》的帖子,那个帖子的内容异常简单:“王老吉,你够狠!捐一个亿,胆敢是王石的200倍!为了整治这个嚣张的企业,买光超市的王老吉!上一罐买一罐!”","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"k2L0-1647839444565","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"Z7NI-1647839444563","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"Swas-1647839444917","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"pQhG-1647839444915","leaves":[{"text":"这个名为封杀实为营销的帖子在那个新浪微博还没有诞生的年代获得了超过100万的点击量和超过5000的回复量。很多人也正是从汶川地震之后开始对王老吉耳熟能详,而“怕上火喝王老吉”的广告语似乎也从那时开始越来越悦耳。从这个角度来讲,王老吉可称为是“野性消费之父”。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"wNeI-1647839207301","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"9pTH-1647839207298","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"Jz6d-1647839488607","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"1bXD-1647839488605","leaves":[{"text":"不管是王老吉主动策划也好,还是白象、鸿星尔克们被网友被动推上热搜也好,一个值得思考的问题是:为什么这些做出善意行为的国货品牌会促进我们的非理性消费?","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"LztA-1647845782246","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"JFwM-1647845782244","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"5h50-1647845782464","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"IR46-1647845782462","leaves":[{"text":"01 品牌的示弱传播","marks":[{"type":"bold"}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"6kvW-1647831927328","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"PRaS-1647831927324","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"neHY-1647845800870","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"hIaU-1647845800868","leaves":[{"text":"当我们去看白象、鸿星尔克、蜂花在网络上的舆论走向时,可能会发现它们在与公众沟通时,并没有展现自己强大的一面,而是以一种弱者的姿态出现,鸿星尔克年亏损超2亿,却捐出5000万,白象1/3员工是残疾人,蜂花更是因为被传因为价格太低快倒闭了而引发大批网友同情。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"fYEC-1647846162077","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"dkYf-1647846162064","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"1Xi5-1647846525561","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"LCsQ-1647846525558","leaves":[{"text":"示弱是营销的一种,它给人的印象是“","marks":[]},{"text":"我非常努力,只不过运气不好而已。”这与很多人的人生相似,拥有同样经历的人会感同身受并对此抱有同情。","marks":[{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]},{"text":"比如很多品牌会讲自己卑微的起源,以及它如何克服千辛万苦,终于获得成功的种种细节,就像谷歌、惠普、苹果都喜欢说他们是从车库开始的。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"dcMn-1647846660989","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"vrqp-1647846660988","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"yV5B-1647846663554","name":"image","data":{"version":1,"url":"https://note.youdao.com/yws/public/resource/aa75c43f573ece7e61d3d3b4631f8d2b/xmlnote/WEBRESOURCE53a19c6234361caec2d60a1665b35316/113265","width":1184,"height":642},"nodes":[],"state":{"renderSource":"https://note.youdao.com/yws/public/resource/aa75c43f573ece7e61d3d3b4631f8d2b/xmlnote/WEBRESOURCE53a19c6234361caec2d60a1665b35316/113265","initialSize":{"width":1034,"height":561},"loading":false}},{"type":"block","id":"QcbY-1647846683402","name":"image","data":{"version":1,"url":"https://note.youdao.com/yws/public/resource/aa75c43f573ece7e61d3d3b4631f8d2b/xmlnote/WEBRESOURCEb555c9ea35bca528032aa03f8bafd8af/113266","width":1184,"height":643},"nodes":[],"state":{"renderSource":"https://note.youdao.com/yws/public/resource/aa75c43f573ece7e61d3d3b4631f8d2b/xmlnote/WEBRESOURCEb555c9ea35bca528032aa03f8bafd8af/113266","initialSize":{"width":1034,"height":561},"loading":false}},{"type":"block","id":"yWXY-1647845875255","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"oyLX-1647845875252","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"xJ6T-1647846687265","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"4Nuc-1647846687264","leaves":[{"text":"2012年,加多宝曾在输掉与广药的官司后,以示弱的姿态发布一组海报。其官方微博上的四张图片获得了超过4万的转发量,加多宝也一举将输掉官司的负面新闻扭转为成功的公关营销事件,其策略就是在宣传中通过不断强化对比自己与广药的地位差别(民企与国企)来博得民众对民企的同情。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"9cR3-1647846691331","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"lqqz-1647846691330","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"mfHt-1647843791642","name":"image","data":{"version":1,"url":"https://note.youdao.com/yws/public/resource/aa75c43f573ece7e61d3d3b4631f8d2b/xmlnote/WEBRESOURCEf264744f018fe7912a89a2ac6911c101/113091","width":494,"height":698},"nodes":[],"state":{"renderSource":"https://note.youdao.com/yws/public/resource/aa75c43f573ece7e61d3d3b4631f8d2b/xmlnote/WEBRESOURCEf264744f018fe7912a89a2ac6911c101/113091","initialSize":{"width":494,"height":698},"loading":false}},{"type":"block","id":"ELFd-1647832441563","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"SoxU-1647832441561","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"xcZY-1647846402766","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"OAhq-1647846402764","leaves":[{"text":"虽然白象们并不是主动策划的示弱营销,但客观上起到了示弱传播的效果,博得了大众的同情,而其后,它们被消费者买爆直播间的结果,也符合小人物先经历万般挫折,再迎来高光时刻的戏码。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"drrI-1647784801539","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"JZTQ-1647784801537","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"ppFe-1647836016352","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"uhvj-1647836016350","leaves":[{"text":"02 品牌符号的象征意义","marks":[{"type":"bold"}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"mmMK-1647839631168","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"jYKM-1647839631153","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"BzsL-1647839941002","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"MJ5m-1647839940998","leaves":[{"text":"符号学就是研究符号与象征的学问,根据这个理论,每则品牌广告信息都是蕴含着符号与象征,而","marks":[]},{"text":"消费者则会为这种象征买单。","marks":[{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"ELJy-1647841365043","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"N7mx-1647841365030","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"n17F-1647841365278","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"CDdA-1647841365277","leaves":[{"text":"比如对于万宝路香烟来说,它的符号是拿着香烟的牛仔,而象征则是加油","marks":[{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]},{"text":"粗犷、豪迈、英雄气概的美国西部牛仔形象,购买万宝路香烟的消费者会认为具有敢于冒险的英雄主义。","marks":[{"type":"color","value":"#333333"},{"type":"backgroundColor","value":"rgb(255, 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255)"},{"type":"fontFamily","value":"Arial"},{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"IuOF-1647785162311","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"5Gkz-1647785162300","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"XaW0-1647834186371","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"Wxww-1647834186366","leaves":[{"text":"简单来说讲,白象的符号和象征的关系是,","marks":[]},{"text":"白象=真实、靠谱、有责任、有爱心的中国人。","marks":[{"type":"bold"}]},{"text":"这样的象征当然引发中国消费者的巨大好感,中国人不支持这样的人还能支持谁呢?因此于此而来的直播间爆买行为也就容易理解了。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"7cVK-1647785184902","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"3WJQ-1647785184900","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"4tAI-1647839702399","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"rTsH-1647839702397","leaves":[{"text":"社会学传统的符号互动论还认为,人们生活在一个符号的环境中,当我们解释这些符号,时就赋予了符号相应的意义,作为社会成员,每个人便逐渐学会了接受这种共同的意义。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"C0rN-1647842126070","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"dgiV-1647842126068","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"jXKm-1647842126754","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"KBW0-1647842126753","leaves":[{"text":"当消费者将白象推上热搜的时候,他们已经接受了白象代表","marks":[]},{"text":"真实、有责任和爱心的中国人的象征意义,它的存在已经不言而喻,消费者默认购买白象的产品,就是一种表达对于这种共同文化象征的认同。","marks":[{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"2vlzx1613357787439","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"6jvK-1647840421732","leaves":[{"text":" ","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"cENy-1647840565668","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"0k2D-1647840565666","leaves":[{"text":"李普曼认为,象征符号具有神奇的力量,词语本身可以脱离现实,直接作用于普通人的刻板印象,唤起他们的情感。","marks":[{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]},{"text":"通过精心安排符号,就可以“制造同意”。“谁抓住了这些能够将目前的公众感情包含起来的象征,谁就控制了制定公共政策的大多数机会。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"T7kK-1647843331430","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"Qqkz-1647843331429","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"edKx-1647843331746","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"zdEB-1647843331744","leaves":[{"text":"白象虽然并非公共政策推广者,但被动地,它以安排符号的行为制造了大众的同意和认同。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"zLJX-1647840385270","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"Uvc3-1647840385268","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"JBlu-1647830845194","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"mVxB-1647830845192","leaves":[{"text":"03 品牌消费是一种态度","marks":[{"type":"bold"}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"fEPd-1647832753497","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"ihAs-1647832753494","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"nTRZ-1647844534976","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"D8dM-1647844534973","leaves":[{"text":"有人买苹果手机,有人买红米手机,这两者在使用上几乎毫无区别。但使用苹果手机的人一定认为与使用红米手机的人不是一类人。同样,消费故事会、都市故事的和消费经济学人、纽约客的也不是一类人。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"8J3k-1647844535094","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"nZRV-1647844535093","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"SlQp-1647844553374","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"fsF7-1647844553373","leaves":[{"text":"消费的背后代表一种态度,一定程度上,购买什么商品代表消费者是什么样的人。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"0OhE-1647844553534","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"DMuz-1647844553532","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"07QP-1647843548147","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"AGNL-1647843548143","leaves":[{"text":"心理学家丹尼尔·卡兹曾提出","marks":[]},{"text":"态度功能理论","marks":[{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]},{"text":",用来解释态度驱动社会行为的机理。根据这种观点,”态度之所以存在,是因为他对人们有某种影响。那些预期在未来会遇到某种类似环境的消费者,更有可能在这种预期中开始形成一定的态度……其中态度之一是表达价值观功能,具有表达价值观功能的态度,体现了消费者的自我观念或核心价值观。所以一个人对某种商品的态度不仅取决于商品本身的功能,还在于这种商品代表了消费者是哪一类人。”","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"98KJ-1647844854583","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"nhdg-1647844854580","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"IkTn-1647844854849","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"6FdA-1647844854847","leaves":[{"text":"大部分品牌在做广告时,会塑造自己的品牌形象和价值观,以此来吸引自己的目标消费者。但在社会舆论角度,品牌一般是凭借对于公众形成的社会形象来影响消费者的行为。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"KppP-1647845284066","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"inOD-1647845284064","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"FnIb-1647845284509","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"YF0x-1647845284507","leaves":[{"text":"鸿星尔克、白象、蜂花的案例不适于广告形成的品牌形象,而适用于舆论对公众形成的社会形象。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"oB8R-1647846964427","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"INRc-1647846964424","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"p1Lz-1647846964639","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"jX4J-1647846964638","leaves":[{"text":"它们因为自己偏社会责任方向的表现,因而形成了上文所说的“责任、爱心”的社会形象,公众购买这些品牌的商品,其实就代表了自己对于这种形象支持的态度,换句话说,每一个购买这些品牌的消费者,都认为自己是一个有责任、有爱心的人。这里就差一句”不买不是中国人“了。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"pBgX-1647843548293","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"kV49-1647843548292","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"ituh-1647830844069","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"GC3J-1647830844064","leaves":[{"text":"04 模仿与社会影响","marks":[{"type":"bold"}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"1Jhe-1647834395888","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"fbBd-1647834395886","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"1wqq-1647847548981","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"oXNn-1647847548979","leaves":[{"text":"社会身份理论认为,每一个人都与群体相联系,认为自己不是单个的我,而是群体的我们。此外我们对具有相同社会身份的人更有亲切感,哪怕这种身份仅仅是虚拟的,或者是没有任何实际意义的。美国钢铁杂志认为,人们购买哈雷摩托车并不是因为它很高级,而是想借此成为哈雷大家庭的一分子。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"HFlf-1647847549185","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"oL4f-1647847549183","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"lpYk-1647785447827","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"5BFF-1647785447827","leaves":[{"text":"消费是构建个人身份的重要手段,购买什么样的商品,意味着自己从属于什么类型的社会群体,同时,同一个类型的社会群体成员,通常会相互模仿其他人的消费行为。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"5xvT-1647847674581","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"aREi-1647847674578","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"Rn1G-1647834519033","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"hgXW-1647834519032","leaves":[{"text":"当一个人购买一台手机时,他会想起几周前他的朋友使用这台手机时周围人的称赞反应,从而受到影响产生购买行为,并希望获得同样的反应。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"zc9C-1647834519221","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"5LHv-1647834519219","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"HkuD-1647847826800","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"Zsyh-1647847826798","leaves":[{"text":"在直播间”野性消费“的人,事实上进入了一个社会群体,就是拥护国货、有社会责任的群体。这个群体相互影响,消费完鸿星尔克和白象的人,会在朋友圈晒一晒,表明自己支持这些品牌的态度,也宣示自己进入了这个群体。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"OFGv-1647833564427","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"EShO-1647833564421","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"iIUF-1647833565132","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"vtz8-1647833565130","leaves":[{"text":"我们常常会在决定做什么前考虑身边的人做了什么,如果看到捐赠名单里有邻居的名字,他们更可能会捐赠,因此当一个人在朋友圈看到有人购买鸿星尔克、白象时,他将会有更高的概率购买同样的商品。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"5xv1-1647848011886","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"7YMi-1647848011884","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"4dAG-1647848012088","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"uzun-1647848012087","leaves":[{"text":"群体内的模仿和影响导致的消费往往是非理性的,就像勒庞说的,个体一旦聚集成为群众,便失去了理性,也因此,”理性消费“的呼吁,是很有道理的。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"Ol8I-1647843747975","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"VvlV-1647843747973","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"uVWI-1647832441720","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"COvk-1647832441718","leaves":[{"text":"05 CSR的广义互惠原则","marks":[{"type":"bold"}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"E47q-1647830502216","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"yhaK-1647830502213","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"LVNR-1647848270786","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1,"style":{"textAlign":"justify"}},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"7v2m-1647848270784","leaves":[{"text":"罗伯特·西奥迪尼在《影响力》中说:如果一个人送给我们一件生日礼物,我们就应该记住他的生日,等到他过生日时,给他买一件礼品。如果一对夫妇邀请我们参加一个聚会,我们也一定要记得邀请他们参加我们举办的聚会。","marks":[{"type":"color","value":"#545454"},{"type":"fontSize","value":15}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"L36w-1647848563774","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1,"style":{"textAlign":"justify"}},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"cEBc-1647848563773","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"Oj6N-1647848563776","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1,"style":{"textAlign":"justify"}},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"QKiZ-1647848563775","leaves":[{"text":"所以,由于互惠原理的影响,我们感到自己有责任在将来的某个时候回报我们曾经接受过的恩惠、礼物和邀请等等。","marks":[{"type":"color","value":"#545454"},{"type":"fontSize","value":15}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"MvE7-1647848563778","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"DWXN-1647848563777","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"uImU-1647848270927","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"mcuP-1647848270926","leaves":[{"text":"这一点对于企业、社会和公众来讲同样适用。当一个品牌愿意帮助更多人,造福社会时,那么更多人也会在需要的时候帮助品牌。鸿星尔克在河南洪涝灾害中捐款5000万,因而网友愿意在它的直播间一天买2000多万的货,白象在雇佣了大量的残疾人,因而网友让它的直播间","marks":[]},{"text":"7天销售额破千万……","marks":[{"type":"color","value":"#191919"},{"type":"backgroundColor","value":"rgb(255, 255, 255)"},{"type":"fontFamily","value":"Arial"},{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"KLVj-1647848854202","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"8hWq-1647848854199","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"STSQ-1647848854581","name":"paragraph","data":{"version":1},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"VdHM-1647848854580","leaves":[{"text":"尼尔森曾开展过一项关于CSR的全球调查表明,50%的消费者愿意为那些回馈社会的企业所提供的服务或产品支付更高的价格,当企业表现得有道德时,消费者认为他们销售的产品也会更好。这就是广义的互惠原则。","marks":[{"type":"color","value":"#191919"},{"type":"backgroundColor","value":"rgb(255, 255, 255)"},{"type":"fontFamily","value":"Arial"},{"type":"fontSize","value":14}]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"0nGR-1647849404193","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"cFC4-1647849404191","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"hUki-1647849404699","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"zd8d-1647849404698","leaves":[{"text":"白象、鸿星尔克、蜂花们的”野性消费“看似是偶然,其中也有必然,那就是坚定不移地做好产品,白象没有被土坑酸菜困扰,是因为它保证了对食品的负责,蜂花一直保持物美价廉,鸿星尔克一直在最大力度帮助社会,它们的爆火看似是运气,其实是因为它们一直在正确的方向上努力。","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"L97p-1647847372124","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"ny5L-1647847372120","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"syUV-1647847372349","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"MRMw-1647847372347","leaves":[{"text":"参考资料","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"2jBM-1647847387708","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"pjnl-1647847387706","leaves":[{"text":"迈克尔所罗门《消费者行为学》","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"vqn9-1647847385691","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"SelW-1647847385689","leaves":[{"text":"刘海龙《宣传》","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}},{"type":"block","id":"lVjj-1647847396207","name":"paragraph","data":{},"nodes":[{"type":"text","id":"8M4X-1647847396205","leaves":[{"text":"","marks":[]}]}],"state":{}}]" data-mpa-powered-by="yiban.io">

又一个品牌因为野性消费被推上热搜。


北京冬残奥会期间,白象因为员工有三分之一是残障人士,被网友送上了热搜。315土坑酸菜问题曝光后,白象的霸气回应再次赢得大批网友点赞,有网友哭谏白象去买个热榜,结果是白象没有花钱,但热榜有了。


鸿星尔克、白象、蜂花,为什么会让你野性消费?


跟随热搜而来的是“野性消费”,白象在315回应之后,因为相比其他品牌纯正国货的身份,以及企业大量雇佣残疾人的行为被大量讨论,大批网友涌入官方直播间,带来“7天销售额破千万”的成绩,官方不得不呼吁消费者理性消费。


这一幕似曾相识,去年鸿星尔克因为在河南洪涝灾害后低调捐款5000万,而被消费者送上热搜,并引发大批消费者到直播间消费。同样是国货品牌的蜂花,因为“不打广告,物美价廉,却快要倒闭了”而被网友们推上热搜,短时间内直播间被买爆。


鸿星尔克、白象们的“野性消费”现象并不罕见,事实上,早在论坛时代王老吉就有过类似的案例,只不过那个案例是王老吉策划的。


2008年5月19日,王老吉(就是现在的加多宝)宣布为汶川地震捐助1亿元的第二天,天涯论坛上出现了一个标题为《让王老吉从中国的货架上消失!封杀它!》的帖子,那个帖子的内容异常简单:“王老吉,你够狠!捐一个亿,胆敢是王石的200倍!为了整治这个嚣张的企业,买光超市的王老吉!上一罐买一罐!”


这个名为封杀实为营销的帖子在那个新浪微博还没有诞生的年代获得了超过100万的点击量和超过5000的回复量。很多人也正是从汶川地震之后开始对王老吉耳熟能详,而“怕上火喝王老吉”的广告语似乎也从那时开始越来越悦耳。从这个角度来讲,王老吉可称为是“野性消费之父”。


不管是王老吉主动策划也好,还是白象、鸿星尔克们被网友被动推上热搜也好,一个值得思考的问题是:为什么这些做出善意行为的国货品牌会促进我们的非理性消费?


01  品牌的示弱传播

当我们去看白象、鸿星尔克、蜂花在网络上的舆论走向时,可能会发现它们在与公众沟通时,并没有展现自己强大的一面,而是以一种弱者的姿态出现,鸿星尔克年亏损超2亿,却捐出5000万,白象1/3员工是残疾人,蜂花更是因为被传因为价格太低快倒闭了而引发大批网友同情。


示弱是营销的一种,它给人的印象是“我非常努力,只不过运气不好而已。”这与很多人的人生相似,拥有同样经历的人会感同身受并对此抱有同情。比如很多品牌会讲自己卑微的起源,以及它如何克服千辛万苦,终于获得成功的种种细节,就像谷歌、惠普、苹果都喜欢说他们是从车库开始的。


鸿星尔克、白象、蜂花,为什么会让你野性消费?

鸿星尔克、白象、蜂花,为什么会让你野性消费?


2012年,加多宝曾在输掉与广药的官司后,以示弱的姿态发布一组海报。其官方微博上的四张图片获得了超过4万的转发量,加多宝也一举将输掉官司的负面新闻扭转为成功的公关营销事件,其策略就是在宣传中通过不断强化对比自己与广药的地位差别(民企与国企)来博得民众对民企的同情。


鸿星尔克、白象、蜂花,为什么会让你野性消费?


虽然白象们并不是主动策划的示弱营销,但客观上起到了示弱传播的效果,博得了大众的同情,而其后,它们被消费者买爆直播间的结果,也符合小人物先经历万般挫折,再迎来高光时刻的戏码。


02  品牌符号的象征意义

符号学就是研究符号与象征的学问,根据这个理论,每则品牌广告信息都蕴含着符号与象征,而消费者则会为这种象征买单。


比如对于万宝路香烟来说,它的符号是拿着香烟的牛仔,而象征则是粗犷、豪迈、英雄气概的美国西部牛仔形象,购买万宝路香烟的消费者会认为具有敢于冒险的英雄主义情节。


鸿星尔克、白象、蜂花,为什么会让你野性消费?


以白象为例,虽然它并没有在热搜中做广告,但其表现出来的品牌声量,对于消费者来说依然符合符号学理论。


消费者对于白象认同,是因为他的一系列行为,如四大方便面品牌中(其他三家是康师傅、今麦郎、统一)唯一拒绝日资入资的企业,如员工中有1/3为残疾人,如用料良心,与土坑酸菜毫无干系,再加上示弱而体现出来的努力。这些行为以及在此基础上形成的品牌声量,赋予了白象真实、努力、责任、爱心的形象。


简单来说讲,白象的符号和象征的关系是,白象=真实、努力、靠谱、有责任、有爱心的中国人。这样的象征当然引发中国消费者的巨大好感,中国人不支持这样的人还能支持谁呢?因此与此而来的直播间爆买行为也就容易理解了。


社会学传统的符号互动论还认为,人们生活在一个符号的环境中,当我们解释这些符号,时就赋予了符号相应的意义,作为社会成员,每个人便逐渐学会了接受这种共同的意义。


当消费者将白象推上热搜的时候,他们已经接受了白象代表真实、有责任和爱心的中国人的象征意义,消费者默认购买白象的产品,就是一种表达对于这种共同文化象征的认同。

李普曼认为,象征符号具有神奇的力量,通过精心安排符号,就可以“制造同意”。“谁抓住了这些能够将目前的公众感情包含起来的象征,谁就控制了制定公共政策的大多数机会。


白象虽然并非公共政策推广者,但被动地,它以安排符号的行为制造了大众的同意和认同。


03 品牌消费是一种态度


有人买苹果手机,有人买红米手机,这两者在使用上几乎毫无区别。但使用苹果手机的人一定认为与使用红米手机的人不是一类人。同样,消费故事会、都市故事的和消费经济学人、纽约客的也不是一类人。


消费的背后代表一种态度,一定程度上,购买什么商品代表消费者是什么样的人。


心理学家丹尼尔·卡兹曾提出态度功能理论,用来解释态度驱动社会行为的机理。


根据这种观点,“态度之所以存在,是因为他对人们有某种影响。那些预期在未来会遇到某种类似环境的消费者,更有可能在这种预期中形成一定的态度……其中态度之一是表达价值观功能,一个人对某种商品的态度不仅取决于商品本身的功能,还在于这种商品代表了消费者是哪一类人。


大部分品牌在做广告时,会塑造自己的品牌形象和价值观,以此来吸引自己的目标消费者。但在社会舆论角度,品牌一般是凭借对于公众形成的社会形象来影响消费者的行为。


鸿星尔克、白象、蜂花的案例不适于广告形成的品牌形象,而适用于舆论对公众形成的社会形象。


它们因为自己偏社会责任方向的表现,因而形成了上文所说的“责任、爱心”的社会形象,公众购买这些品牌的商品,其实就代表了自己对于这种形象支持的态度,换句话说,每一个购买这些品牌的消费者,都认为自己是一个有责任、有爱心的人。这里就差一句“不买不是中国人”了。


04 模仿与社会影响

社会身份理论认为,每一个人都与群体相联系,认为自己不是单个的我,而是群体的我们。此外我们对具有相同社会身份的人更有亲切感,哪怕这种身份仅仅是虚拟的,或者是没有任何实际意义的。


消费是构建个人身份的重要手段,购买什么样的商品,意味着自己从属于什么类型的社会群体,同时,同一个类型的社会群体成员,通常会相互模仿其他人的消费行为。


当一个人购买一台手机时,他会想起几周前他的朋友使用这台手机时周围人的称赞反应,从而受到影响产生购买行为,并希望获得同样的反应。


在直播间”野性消费“的人,事实上进入了一个社会群体,就是拥护国货、有社会责任的群体。这个群体相互影响,消费完鸿星尔克和白象的人,会在朋友圈晒一晒,表明自己支持这些品牌的态度,也宣示自己进入了这个群体。


我们常常会在决定做什么前考虑身边的人做了什么,如果看到捐赠名单里有邻居的名字,他们更可能会捐赠,因此当一个人在朋友圈看到有人购买鸿星尔克、白象时,他将会有更高的概率购买同样的商品。


群体内的模仿和影响导致的消费往往是非理性的,就像勒庞说的,个体一旦聚集成为群众,便失去了理性,也因此,“理性消费”的呼吁,是很有道理的。


05 CSR的广义互惠原则

罗伯特·西奥迪尼在《影响力》中说:如果一个人送给我们一件生日礼物,我们就应该记住他的生日,等到他过生日时,给他买一件礼品。如果一对夫妇邀请我们参加一个聚会,我们也一定要记得邀请他们参加我们举办的聚会。


所以,由于互惠原理的影响,我们感到自己有责任在将来的某个时候回报我们曾经接受过的恩惠、礼物和邀请等等。


这一点对于企业、社会和公众来讲同样适用。当一个品牌愿意帮助更多人,造福社会时,那么更多人也会在需要的时候帮助品牌。鸿星尔克在河南洪涝灾害中捐款5000万,因而网友愿意在它的直播间一天买2000多万的货,白象在雇佣了大量的残疾人,因而网友让它的直播间7天销售额破千万……


尼尔森曾开展过一项关于CSR的全球调查表明,50%的消费者愿意为那些回馈社会的企业所提供的服务或产品支付更高的价格,当企业表现得有道德时,消费者认为他们销售的产品也会更好。这就是广义的互惠原则。


白象、鸿星尔克、蜂花们的”野性消费“看似是偶然,其中也有必然,那就是坚定不移地做好产品,白象没有被土坑酸菜困扰,是因为它保证了对食品的负责,蜂花一直保持物美价廉,鸿星尔克一直在最大力度帮助社会,它们的爆火看似是运气,其实是因为它们一直在正确的方向上努力。




【参考资料】

迈克尔所罗门《消费者行为学》

刘海龙《宣传》

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